20 December 2000, Volume 15 Issue 4

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  • XIAO Zheng-qing,LIN Qi-zhong
    Remote Sensing Technology and Application. 2000, 15(4): 211-213. https://doi.org/10.11873/j.issn.1004-0323.2000.4.211
    Abstract ( )   Knowledge map   Save

    The 2-D vector distribution in scatter-plot of the targets contained remotely sensed data is a point
    when ignoring the topographic effect and noises. However all these effects and noises exist in reality. In
    order to recognize the targets from remotely sensed data, the sun radiation energy is calculated in this
    paper on the base of the geometry model from DEM and the data reception time. The different reflectance
    values can be set up for image processing experiments through the scatter-plot visualization. Different
    noises were added to the data, the vector variation in 2D scatter-plot can be studied. All these studies can
    help to make clear the effective features for targets extraction.

  • ZHANG Yuan-zhi, NIE Yue-ping, LIN Qi-zhong, JING Lin-hai, ZHANG Bing
    Remote Sensing Technology and Application. 2000, 15(4): 214-219. https://doi.org/10.11873/j.issn.1004-0323.2000.4.214
    Abstract ( )   Knowledge map   Save

    This paper describes the possibility of surface water quality monitoring using remote sensing
    technology and the spectral signatures of pure water and other types of water quality. Using airborne and
    spaceborne data (TM and ERS-2) analysed with in situ measurements of ground truth points for water
    quality parameters, some major factors of surface water quality can be derived from remote sensing data by
    case studies. Concurrent in situ surface water quality measurments, Landsat TM data and ERS-2 SAR
    data were obtained in the selected locations in August1997. In situ data included measurements of
    chlorophyll-a, total dissolved organic carbon and turbidity, Secchi disk depth, color index, estimated wave
    height, salinity and surface temperature. The Landsat TM and ERS-2 SAR data from locations of water
    samples were extracted and the digital data were examined in their raw states as well as numerous
    transformations. Significant correlations were observed between digital numbers and surface water quality
    parameters. The results indicate that it may be possible to derive surface water quality parameters using
    remote sensing data in our case study area. However, the technique still needs to be refined to detect
    differences within the range of water quality which is typically found in the area under study.

  • SUN Dan-feng,LI Hong
    Remote Sensing Technology and Application. 2000, 15(4): 220-222. https://doi.org/10.11873/j.issn.1004-0323.2000.4.220
    Abstract ( )   Knowledge map   Save

    The study improves the CP neural network including the weight vectors initial, network
    learning, the competitive nodes dynamic allocation and the vigilance parameter design etc. It applied to the
    remote sensing imagery classification. The learning times influence the node numbers and learning
    accuracy. According its raise, the learning accuracy increases a limit degree.The research boundary is
    decided by the vigilance parameter , which decreases with the learning process in order to get the high
    accuracy and the stability of networks. The two-layer networks improves the overall accuracy by 1.1%,
    Kappa coefficient by 0.02, which compared to the single-layer networks. It is concluded the improved CP
    is another classification method for remote sensing.

  • LI Ya-chun, SUN Han, XU Meng
    Remote Sensing Technology and Application. 2000, 15(4): 223-227. https://doi.org/10.11873/j.issn.1004-0323.2000.4.223
    Abstract ( )   Knowledge map   Save

    The radiant characters of fog and basic principles of detection by remote sensing are introduced in
    this paper, and then the specialties of fog on the image texture, movement rules and dissipation trend are
    analyzed. The present situation of the study on the techniques of detecting fog by remote sensing using
    meteorological satellite data are summarized and the existent problems in this field are discussed at last.

  • TAN Jian-guo, ZHOU Hong-mei,LU xian,YANG Chong-jun
    Remote Sensing Technology and Application. 2000, 15(4): 228-231. https://doi.org/10.11873/j.issn.1004-0323.2000.4.228
    Abstract ( )   Knowledge map   Save

    In this paper, the techniques and models of cloud detection and cloud rehabilitation applied to
    AVHRR imagery of NOAA meteorological satellite and the basic functions of the operation system on base
    of Visual Basic language has been introduced.By experimentation and comparing with the fact, the high
    operation efficiency and precision of the cloud detection and cloud rehabilitation has been acquired.
    Thereby, the cloud detection and cloud rehabilitation operation system can provide the guarantee of
    credibled NOAA/ AVHRR imagery in the fields of remote sensing application.

  • WU Quan-yuan,ZHANG Ning-yu
    Remote Sensing Technology and Application. 2000, 15(4): 232-236. https://doi.org/10.11873/j.issn.1004-0323.2000.4.232
    Abstract ( )   Knowledge map   Save

    Complexity of social security of public surroundings makes it much difficult that police department enforces the law. In order to defend the social stability and security, police should be armed with science and technology. Police precaution information system which based on GIS, RS, GPS and DSS can extremely promote the ability of fast reaction of police department, the precision of police attendance and the efficiency of getting rid of the legal case. The formation and main functions of the police precaution information system are concisely introduced in this paper.

  • GUO Ni, QING Ji-zu
    Remote Sensing Technology and Application. 2000, 15(4): 237-240. https://doi.org/10.11873/j.issn.1004-0323.2000.4.237
    Abstract ( )   Knowledge map   Save

    This paper introduces the basic principle of NOAA satellite data monitoring snow cover and sums
    up its methods used in China, and based on which an improved way is put up. With this method Qilian
    Mountain snow cover in 2 June,1998 and ten-days snow cover over Shulehe river basin in 1998 were
    monitored. The results shows that this method is available and last ten days snow depth and area is
    correlated to the precipitation observed at weather station.

  • WANG Peng-xin, GONG Jian-ya,LI Xiao-wen
    Remote Sensing Technology and Application. 2000, 15(4): 241-245. https://doi.org/10.11873/j.issn.1004-0323.2000.4.241
    Abstract ( )   Knowledge map   Save

     Remote sensing (RS), geographic information system (GIS) and global positioning system
    (GPS), known as ' 3S' technologies, can be applied to agricultural fields separately or in combinations.
    These technologies are used to obtain multidimensional information, especially for temporal series, in
    agricultural production systems, to manage and process spatial and attribute data comprehensively, to
    propose related information for agricultural decision-makers and farmers, and further to provide guidelines
    for the regional agricultural production and sustainable development. In this paper, the prospects of
    applying these technologies to develop agricultural production in the Northwest of China were discussed.
    The discussions were centralized on retrievals of land surface temperature and soil moisture, and on
    monitoring of drought occurrence and desertification dynamically, and on management of the data as well.
    Most areas of the Northwest China belong to arid and semi-arid areas where rainfall is low and with uneven
    spatial and temporal distributions. Rainfed agriculture is popular in the region. Many field studies showed
    that there are two main constraints for the region' s agricultural development, one is the shortage of soil
    water supply and another is that soil fertility is low. The soil water shortage is often occurred over a large
    area, therefore, the only way to monitor the shortage and to estimate its extent is using remote sensing
    technology. For bare soil or soil with sparse vegetation coverage, remotely sensed data can be used to
    model soil thermal inertia, and further to model soil moisture. Taking NOAA advanced very high
    resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data as a example, firstly, channel 1 (0.58~0.68μm) and channel 2 (0.
    72~1.10μm) can be used to retrieve soil surface albedo, and for channel 4 (10.3~11.3μm) and channel
    5 (11.5~12.50μm) to retrieve land surface temperature by the so-called spilt window technology.
    Secondly, a model of soil real thermal inertia was established based on solving near-surface conductive heat
    transfer equation by applying Fourier series method. And finally, an empirical or semi-empirical relation
    between soil surface moisture and soil thermal inertia can be found by applying regression approaches. For
    the vegetation covered areas, different indices, such as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI),
    Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), Temperature Condition Index (TCI) and Anomaly Vegetation Index
    (AVI), were also explored from AVHRR data, and these indices can be used to monitor drought
    occurrence.The Northwest of China located in the inland of Eurasia, soil wind and water erosions are very
    serious in the region, therefore, soil/land desertification is also occurred extensively, especially in the arid
    areas caused by wind erosion and in the semi-arid areas of the Loess Plateau caused by water runoff. It is
    very useful to investigate the gradation of desertification and as well as to study the spatial and temporal
    distributions of desertification by using satellite remotely sensed images. For images with low spatial
    resolution, such as AVHRR, they can be used to monitor desertification over a large area during a long
    period, and for high spatial resolution image data, such as Landsat, these data can be used to monitor
    desertification in a relatively small area in detail.GPS technology can be applied to acquiring precision
    positions when field surveys are carried out or remotely sensed missions are implemented. While GIS
    technology is an effective tool for storing, analyzing, managing and updating of spatial and attribute data,
    including remotely sensed data and GPS acquired data.

  • TAN Qu-lin, SHAO Yun
    Remote Sensing Technology and Application. 2000, 15(4): 246-251. https://doi.org/10.11873/j.issn.1004-0323.2000.4.246
    Abstract ( )   Knowledge map   Save

    Remote sensing technology is an effective way to continually, rapidly and dynamically monitor
    the large-scale environmental pollution since the technology possess the advantages of low-cost, regional
    and global, long-term monitoring, and of real-time or timely prediction. This paper summarizes the
    achievements of visible, reflected and thermal infrared, hyper-spectral and microwave remote sensing
    technology applied to environmental pollution monitoring. The applications of remote sensing technology
    to water and atmosphere environment pollution monitoring are illustrated, including water turbidity
    analysis, oil pollution, urban sewage, water-body thermal pollution and eutrophication. Finally, it is
    pointed out that the remote sensing technology of environment pollution monitoring exists much deficiency
    in China. And some suggestions on developing the technology are given as follows: (1) Utilizing remote
    sensing technology, it is necessitated to construct large-scale real-time monitoring and predicting system of
    environment pollution accidents. (2) Developing new remote sensing sensors and improving their
    performances in pollution monitoring. (3) Developing quantitative remote sensing monitoring technology
    for environment pollutants. (4) Integrating environment pollution remote sensing monitoring technology,
    geographic information system, global positioning system, and expert system, combined with ground-
    environment pollution monitoring technology, constructing Chinese environment pollution monitoring
    integrated system.

  • XU Mei, HUANG Shi-feng,HUANG Xuan
    Remote Sensing Technology and Application. 2000, 15(4): 252-255. https://doi.org/10.11873/j.issn.1004-0323.2000.4.252
    Abstract ( )   Knowledge map   Save

    Remote sensing and GIS have been widely used in dynamic detection of land use changes, which
    have been commonly recognized by many peoples. Because the land use and land cover are very complex,
    we meet many problems in land use detection by remote sensing. In this paper, we mainly discuss several
    key problems in actual applications of remote sensing technology to land use changes detecting effectively,
    such as the special relations between land use and land cover, selection and handling of images, comparing
    and synthesizing of several different means, participating of much knowledge in many other sides and so
    on. If those problems can be well resolved, the precision can be well improved to much extent, and the
    result may be better.

  • MU Dong, ZHU Zhao-da, ZHANG Huan-chun
    Remote Sensing Technology and Application. 2000, 15(4): 256-260. https://doi.org/10.11873/j.issn.1004-0323.2000.4.256
    Abstract ( )   Knowledge map   Save

    Using the X-band raw data from SIR-C/X-SAR, we have succeeded in the formation of an actual
    spaceborne two-pass InSAR Digital Elevation Model. In this article, a new mathematical expression has
    been proposed to illustrate the principle of this 3D InSAR imaging technique. In the obtaining of this new
    expression, reasonable approximation was used. Compared with other principle illustrations, it has the
    following advantages:(1) With only one expression, the relation between the terrain height to be sensed
    and the phase difference of interferogram in a range line is clearly exposed. (2) An important concept is
    revealed that the valid component of baseline for height measuring is its projection in the direction vertical
    to the slant range. (3) It enabled the theoretical analysis of height measuring accuracy affected by some
    geographic parameters. (4) It can be used for the conversion of the phase difference to terrain height. (5)
    It suggests the course of signal processing of InSAR. (6) It shows why the relation between phase
    difference and terrain height is usually considered to be linear in practice. Then, a whole procedure of
    signal processing of InSAR is given. It is divided into nine steps, and functions of each step have been
    briefly explained. Last, results of some key steps such as single look complex image of SAR, phase fringe
    image of interferogram, flat earth modified phase fringe, noise reduced phase fringe, and the final 3D
    topography are shown.

  • HAN Jia-feng, YANG Xue-liang
    Remote Sensing Technology and Application. 2000, 15(4): 261-264. https://doi.org/10.11873/j.issn.1004-0323.2000.4.261
    Abstract ( )   Knowledge map   Save

    Image interpolation is an important problem when enlarging digital images.Using fractal method
    to enlarge images can get better visual quality by adding more details to the images, because fractals have
    infinite details.With the low convergent speed for iterative image interpolation, we developed two methods
    to accelerate the convergence. For the first one, according to the theory of cybernetics, we developed a
    comparator, the other one we named it“crossed iteration”. The experimental results of the two methods
    showed they were much in evidence to accelerate the convergence. At last, the benefits and the limitations
    of the two methods are also analyzed and discussed in this paper.

  • HU Liang-jun, SHAO Ming-an
    Remote Sensing Technology and Application. 2000, 15(4): 265-269. https://doi.org/10.11873/j.issn.1004-0323.2000.4.265
    Abstract ( )   Knowledge map   Save

    Data is a key issue in application of GIS. All the works depending on GIS must be based on the
    fundamental database construction. But in fact, data in the real world appears with different formats,
    different scales, different origins and different existence, which results in that GIS' ability to accept
    different data has been a dazzling sub-field in applications of GIS. In this paper, different spatial data
    formats in different spatial data processing software, data accepting methods of GIS, and some relative
    problems in data transformation from outside systems to GIS are discussed, which may conduce to data
    collection of GIS. Meanwhile, the data reading ways of ARC/INFO from outside system is also discussed.
    The spatial data can be divided into 3 types according to data processing systems usually: GIS data,
    remotely sensed images and common spatial graphics. These 3 types of spatial data have different data
    formats and data organizing characteristics. GIS data can be described in vector or in grid, remotely sensed
    data is usually in grid, and common spatial graphics are described with a positioning data sets which is like
    O (x, y, z). On the other hand, GIS software can get spatial data from outside for its database
    construction through 3 ways: GIS~GIS, RS~GIS, and graphic processing system~GIS. So, the data
    characteristics from outside systems must be analyzed, and the reading way of GIS should also be
    considered. Then, a data interface can be developed to transform the data from outside systems to GIS,
    which is better than digitization or scanning. During the course of data transformation, the data
    transformation accuracy, projection and coordinates transformation, scales, and data transformation
    procedure are 4 problems that should be considered. They are still the difficulties of data process and data
    transformation in GIS science.

  • FENG Zhong-kui, YE Xiao-duan
    Remote Sensing Technology and Application. 2000, 15(4): 270-273. https://doi.org/10.11873/j.issn.1004-0323.2000.4.270
    Abstract ( )   Knowledge map   Save

    This paper introduces Landsat 7 data products provided by China Remote Sensing Satellite
    Ground Station, describes the composition of Landsat 7 data products recorded in Fast Format(FAST-
    L7A), and also presents the methods of reading the Fast Format data products. The Fast Format(FAST-
    L7A) volume set contains Header Files and Image Files. The contents and format of the Header File in this
    version have been expanded to accommodate additional information pertinent to the data sets provided by
    EOSAT. The contents and format of the Image Files have not changed. The Header File contains three
    1536-byte ASCII records:Administrative Record, Radiometric Record and Geometric Record. All image
    files contain only one band of image data. There are no header records within the image file,nor are there
    prefix and/or suffix data in the individual image records. Image data may be blocked or unblocked.

  • CHEN Hong, LI Shi-zhong, ZHANG Wu, ZHANG Li
    Remote Sensing Technology and Application. 2000, 15(4): 274-276. https://doi.org/10.11873/j.issn.1004-0323.2000.4.274
    Abstract ( )   Knowledge map   Save

    Since America launched the first real earth observing satellite in 1972, and with the wide use of
    the data received from it in the fields of monitor and all kinds of resource management, the research results
    showed that the performance of the observation system need to be improved. Data users want the remote
    data to have higher spatial resolution, radiation resolution, spectrum resolution and temporal resolution.
    Human being has launched a number of remote sensing satellites with improved capabilities since 1990.
    Because they carries different types of sensors, in order to make full use of various sensors' advantage, the
    fusion of data from various sensors should be done and the key point is to increase the relevance and
    dependence of the fusion. Of all parameters listed in the paper, the main factors which affect the relevance
    and dependence of the fusion are instantaneous geometry field of view (IGFOV), radiate accuracy
    instantaneous field of view (RAIFOV), center wave length, band width, radiate accuracy and repeat
    period. If the sensor parameters are standardized globally, the information can be maximal used. The
    paper discussed the parameters of remote sensing satellites in terms of spatial, radiometric, spectral and
    temporal resolution.